Тренировочные упражнения по английскому языку, раздел «Словообразование» для учащихся 9-11 классов.
Ex. 5. Образуйте от данных глаголов существительные с помощью суффикса -ment. Переведите на русский язык:
Develop, achieve, move, arrange, treat, state, improve, agree, equip, govern, require, measure, announce, pave, amuse, argue, advertise, invest.
Ex. 6. Образуйте прилагательные с помощью суффиксов -ful и -less, переведите их на русский язык:
Beauty, thank, hope, doubt, c
Ex. 1. Переведите следующие слова, выделите в них суффиксы и префиксы:
Untrue, prehistoric, ultramodern, postwar, ex-champion, anti-body, de compose, decode, deform, depart, discover, disappearance, reread, reconstruct, coauthor, unequal, misunderstand, undress, disarm, anti-fascist, cooperation, co-existence, interaction, superhuman, ultra-violet.
Ex. 2. Определите, к какой части речи относятся следующие слова. Переведите их:
Achievement — achieve, resistance — resistant, assistance — assist — assistant, celebration — celebrate, difference — different, city — citizen, nation — national — nationality, measure — measurement, develop — development, act — active — activity, contain — container, discover — discovery — discoverer, literature — literary, graduate — graduation — undergraduate — post-graduate, educate — education, progress — progressive, act — action — activity — active, govern — governor — government.
Ex. З. Образуйте от данных глаголов существительные с помощью суффикса -ег или -or. Переведите на русский язык:
To lead, to write, to read, to visit, to speak, to sleep, to act, to direct, to conduct, to drive, to fight, to mine, to report, to sing, to skate, to swim, to teach, to travel, to sail, to invent, to found, to compose.
Ex. 4. Образуйте от данных слов существительные с помощью суффикса -ist, -ism, -ian. Переведите на русский язык:
Special, social, art, capital, economy, international, piano, technic, mathematics, statistics, politics, music, electric, Russia, Hungary, Canada, India.
are, aim, use, shape, fruit, power, thought, harm, colour.
Ex. 7. Образуйте прилагательные с помощью суффиксов -able, -ible, переведите их на русский язык:
Change, convert, prevent, break, compare, desire, profit, read, comfort, respect, expect, fashion, flex.
Ex. 8. Найдите и выделите суффиксы в данных словах и определите, к ка кой части речи эти слова относятся:
British, foolish, understandable, heartless, pitiless, successful, experiment, function, musician, socialist, artist, capitalism, professional, fundamental, industrial, doubtful, useful, different, treatment, creative, attractive, peaceful, dangerous, elementary, childish, active, economic, director, worker, passage, marriage, silence, freedom, kingdom.
Ex. 9. Образуйте глаголы с помощью суффикса -en:
Red, tight, soft, deep, short, dark, bright, weak, black, white, sweet, sharp,
Ex. 10. Образуйте наречия с помощью суффикса -1у и переведите их:
Bad, first, part, quick, strong, short, silent, rapid, wide, extreme, cruel, kind, happy.
Ex. 11. Образуйте глаголы от данных существительных. Переве дите их:
Turn, smile, smoke, snow, start, stay, step, stop, study, talk, visit, rest, air, paper, cover, handle, cause, watch, act, address, answer, brush, clean, cross, crowd, wave, wish, work, dance, doubt, dress, end, fight, help, hope, joke, laugh, lift, light, love, mind, paper, pencil, place, plan, play, post, reply, report, return, sail, show.
Ex. 12. Переведите на русский язык. Выделите словообразу ющие элементы. Определите, к какой части речи относятся данные слова:
React, reaction, reactor, reactivity; science, scientific, scientist; industry, industrial, industrious; cold, coldly, coldness; dark, darkness, darken; happy, happily, happiness, unhappy; equal, equally, unequal, equality; free, freedom, freely; attention, attentive, attentively; sun, sunny, sunless; care, careful, careless, carefully, carelessness; to differ, different, difference, indifferent; England, English, Englishman; poison,poisonous,extreme,extremely,extremity,extremist,friend,friendship,friendly,unfriendly.
Ex. 13. Переведите следующие сложные слова:
Aircraft, airspace, Air Force , summer-resort,rest-house, custom-house, dining-room, dining car, living-room , fireplace, nightlife, newsagent, sunglasses, popstar, snowboarding, bungee jumping,
earthquake, greenhouse, laptop, software, science-fiction, solar system, so-called, haircut , hairbrush, icebox, newspaper, notebook, rain forest ,lifetime , raincoat, sportsman, sunshine, sunrise, sunset, sunflower, body-piercing.
Ex. 14. Прочтите следующие пары слов, соблюдая ударения. Переведите их:
An accent — to accent, a contract — to contract, a content — to content, a contest — to contest, an increase-to increase, a convict — to convict, a perfect — to perfect, a record — to record, refuse-to refuse, a refugee-to refuge.
Ex. 15. Определите, к каким частям речи относятся выделенные слова:
1. Не works as a teacher. 2. I saw one of his works at the exhibition. 3. I was waiting for your report. 4. They report the results of their experiment every Monday. 5. His report contains some of his thoughts about the experiment. 6. You’ll make progress if you work hard. 7. He thought about his new work. 8. I have a present for you. 9. I am busy at pre sent. 10. He presented me with a book.
Ex. 16. Проанализируйте состав следующих слов. Определите части речи. Дайте начальную форму. Переведите слова:
Powerful, inventor, high-quality, network, demoralize, profitable, dislike, disagree, movement, shorten, incorrect, electricity, fruitful, fruitless, happiness, dangerous, noisy, sunny, rainy, badly, strongly, reading, teaching, rebuild, retell, leader, teacher, unhappy, unusual, translation, cooperation, schoolboy, icebreaker.
Ex. 17. Напишите сложные существительные, исходя из объяснений.
Например: A machine for drying hair – hair drier.
1. A thing for opening tins — … . 2. A machine for playing records — … . 3. A machine for mixing food — … . 4. A thing that times eggs (when they are boiling) — … . 5. Things for warming people’s legs — … . 6. Stuff that kills flies — … . 7. A liquid that removes paint — … . 8. A tool that opens bottles — … . 9. A thing for peeling potatoes — … . 10. A liquid for removing eye makeup — … . 11. Stuff for freshening the air — … .
Ex. 18. Распределите прилагательные по трем группам: 1) люди, 2) места, 3) вещи:
Obstinate, unspoilt, hand-made, waterproof, easy-going, breathtaking, aggressive, deserted, overgrown, overcrowded, cunning, picturesque, arrogant, long-lasting, spoilt, automatic, accurate, artificial.
Ex. 19Выберите слово с нужным по смыслу префиксом или суффиксом.
1. I know Jim Kerry is very popular but I find him totally childish / childlike. 2. I couldn’t work out whom the letter was from. The signature was childish / childlike. 3. Sarah is so childish / childlike. She always plays trick on her friends. 4. It was wonderful to watch the tiny lambs playing. I got such childish / childlike pleasure from the experience. 5. Sophie is extremely sensitive / sensible at the moment. Anything you say seems to upset her. 6. Karen is not a very sensitive / sensible person. She wore high-heeled shoes for our four-mile walk. 7. I’ve never known her to tell a lie. She’s a very true / truthful person. 8. I can never watch sad films that are based on true / truthful a story. They always make me cry. 9. Susan is so intolerable / intolerant of other people. She never accepts anyone else’s opinion, and she always thinks she knows best. 10. I find Mark’s behaviour intolerable / intolerant. It’s unfair to be so selfish. 11. We’re having an economic / economical crisis at the moment. James has lost his job and I don’t know how we are going to pay the rent. 12. It’s more economic / economical to drive slowly. You can do a lot more miles to the gallop.
Ex.19 Подберите к каждой тройке слов такое, чтобы с его помощью образовать составные существительные, используйте слова: board, green, paper, book, birthday, blood, rain, site, road, sports, ice, water, day, night, hand, case, sun, bag.
Например: camp…, building…, bomb… – campsite, building site, bomb-site.
1. …test, …pressure, …donor. 2. …fall, …melon, …skiing. 3. …house, …grocer, …salad. 4. …club, …mare, …shift. 5. brief…, suit…, book… . 6. paper…, plastic…, shoulder… . 7. …bow, …coat, …drop. 8. …shine, …rise, …set. 9. …works, …sign, …rage. 10. black…, floor…, notice… . 11. …light, …break, …dream. 12. …shake, …writing, …book. 13. …cube, …berg, …rink. 14. …cake, …present, …card. 15. …scape, …lady, …slide. 16. …car, …center, …ground. 17. address…, visitor’s…, note… .
Ex. 20 Дополните предложения сложными существительными в скобках (это могут быть и составные существительные, и существительные в притяжательном падеже в простой или аналитической форме).
1. Your coat is on the … (back, chair). 2. You’ve just spilt the … (milk, cat). 3. Can you buy some … (paper, toilet). 4. I never listened to my … (advise, parents). 5. Can you buy a … (wine, bottle) to have with supper? 6. What did that … (road, sigh) say? Did you see it? 7. It’s such a mess in here. There are empty … (wine, bottles) everywhere. 8. The … (Prime Minister, duties) include entertaining heads of the state. 9. The … (my shoe, heel) has come off. 10. Can I borrow your … (brush, hair)? 11. What happened at the … (film, end)? 12. Here is … (today, news). 13. Where is the nearest … (Metro, station)? 14. It’s my … (anniversary, parents, wedding) next week. 15. The … (company, success) is due to its efficiency. 16. I’ve got a … (fortnight, holiday) next month. 17. The … (government, economic policy) is confusing. 18. My children go to the local … (school, state). 19. The annual … (rate, inflation) is about 4 percent. 20. Are there any … (coffee, cups) in your bedroom? There are none in the kitchen. 21. Do you want a … (coffee, cup)?
Ex.21. Заполните пропуски глаголом или существительным: advice – to advise, use – to use, abuse – to abuse, belief – to believe, relief – to relieve, grief – grieve, excuse – to excuse, breath – to breathe, half – to halve, house – to house, safe – to save, bath – to bathe.
1. It is my personal … that this man is innocent. 2. Let me listen to your chest. Take a deep … and say “Ah”. 3. You should put your valuables in the … . 4. Drug … is a terrible problem all over the world. 5. I know it isn’t good for my skin, but I love sun … . 6. I’ve been so worried about you! It’s such a … to see you at last! 7. “What are we going to do with this cake?” “Cut it in two. You take … and I’ll take … .” 8. Can you show me how to … this new coffee machine? 9. The refugees are … in temporary accommodation. 10. She apologizes for her behavior, and said it was because she’d had a busy day, but that’s no … for breaking all the plates. 11. People need time to … after the death of someone they love. 12. Take my … . Never marry for money. Marry for love.
Ex. 22. Напишите слово противоположное по значению, используя префикс
Kind, honest, credible, appear, fair, equal, pleased, continue, fasten, normal, employed, friendly, trust, professional, known, cover, safe, use, probable, important, emotional.
1. Определите, к какой части речи относятся данные слова. Переведите их:
Beautiful, function, artist, musician, heartless, economic, worker, badly, act, action, active, basic, fruitless, population, movement, historic, democratic, work, daily, literature, picture, organization, friendship, highly, leader, fight, fighter, national, impressive, hopeful, hopeless, beautiful, special, specialist, define, definition, humanism, humanist, humanistic, use, useful, useless.
2. Переведите слова на русский язык. Определите префикс и его значение:
Coauthor, undress, disarm, postwar, illegal, unkind, reconstruct, deformation, prewar,antihero , ex-champion, superhuman, disagreement,
3. Образуйте прилагательные от существительных при помощи следующих суффиксов: -al, -ful, -ous, -у, -able, -ible, -ic, -less, -ish. Переведите пары слов.
Reason, beauty, hope, doubt, care, aim, use, desire, boy, success, heart, experiment, form, office, danger, fame, electron, base, nature, cloud, sun, child, Scott, history, home.
4. Переведите предложения. Определите, к каким частям речи относятся выделенные слова. Назовите сложные слова:
1. Many pupils study English. 2. My grandfather has a large study. 3. Who ruled this country? 4. All sportsmen must obey the rules of the game. 5. The Soviet Union is tied by friendship with India in their work for peace. 6. All peace-loving people work for peace for the whole of mankind.
5. Назовите глаголы, от которых образованы следующие существительные:
Protection, show, writer, worker, movement, investigation, achieve ment, statement, reader, department, equipment, construction, organization, reporter, arrival, improvement, conductor, establishment, development, education, definition, regulation, assistance, agreement.
6. Переведите без словаря. Определите, к какой части речи относятся слова:
a) Specialist, institute, university, culture, cultural, centre, central, nation, national, international, organization, minister, nature, natural, traditional, progressive, moral, social, socialist, public, programmer, popular, modern, revolution, revolutionary, final, talent, continent, festival, political, experiment, experimentation, electricity, technical, transformation, system, systematically, practice, practical, seminar, lecture, lecturer, period, historic, history, professor, complex, form, acceleration, instrument, philosopher, idea, basic, fundamental, conceptions, mass, class, element, motor, method, problem, energy, radio, text, material, temperature, progress, television.
b) 1. France and England are European countries. 2. In the evening we like to listen to classical music. 3. We saw a comedy at the Drama Theatre last night. 4. Your train leaves from platform two. 5. This jazz orchestra gave several concerts in our town. 6. In 1610 Galileo constructed the first tele scope in the world. 7. This was a dangerous experiment.
7. Проанализируйте следующие слова, какие они? Определите их составляющие. Переведите на русский язык:
Ice-hockey, world-wide, bedroom, newspaper, long-term, birthplace, sportsman, apple-juice, peace-loving, schoolchildren, football, highland, television, underground, north-west, sometimes, lowland, landscape, well-known, multinational, network, vice-president.
8. Поставьте слово, указанное в скобках, в нужную форму.
1. My father is very … (act) even though he’s seventy. 2. I’ve always wanted to work in the theatre, but … (act) it isn’t a very secure profession. 3. I … (hope), we’ll soon find a solution to the problem. 4. Look … (care) to the left and to the right before crossing the road. 5. It was very … (care) of you to lose my watch. 6. I take two … (day) newspapers and three Sunday papers. 7. You’ve broken my camera! Look at it! It’s … (use)! 8. Thanks for the advice. It was really … (use). 9. I have some very … (noise) neighbours. 10. She became … (fame) as a result of her invention.
This is the most . . . . . . concert I‘ve ever been to. (Expense)
Her husband’s not a very……person. (Patience)
Susan is very……and wants to do well. (Ambition)
Show some……. Don’t you like the idea? (Enthuse)
Her problem is that she has not enough……in herself. (Confide)
Dan is really very……, even rude sometimes. (Polite)
I haven’t been to the cinema…… . (Recent)
Mary…… and they never s aw her again. (Appear)
Most people have no real…… in ghosts.(Believe)
Mark Twain wrote many…… stories. (Humour)
The children’s…… at the concert was excellent. (Behave)
Rita asked for a …… and cashier gave her one. (Receive)
Do you think you have the…… to pass the exam? (Able)
You need a lot of …… to write a good story. (Imagine)
I read an interesting …… in the newspaper. (Advertise)
Their friendship began in their …… . (Child)
I’m telling you the ……! I swear! (True)
Your composition isn’t good enough. You’ll have to …… it. (Write)
Did you know Ann used to work as a …… when she was younger? (Wait)
They need your …… before they can do it. (Sign)
It all happened quite…… . I didn’t have time to think. (Sudden)
I’m sure his new film is going to be a huge…… .(Succeed)
Did Paul give an …… for his actions? (Explain)
The …… of the village are all very kind. (Inhabit)
The leaflet gives a brief…… of each place. (Describe)
Can you give us a quick …… of how it works? (Explain)
Olga broke the vase during an …… with her husband. (Argue)
Gold is a very …… metal. (Value)
Peter began to feel depressed and …… . (Help)
His book is the result of years of …… research. (Care)
This snake is not …… at all. (Danger)
The bright flowers make the room look….. . (Cheer)
1. Teenagers nowadays are more interested in ……. problems. (Globe)
2. Have you seen the new Levi …… on TV? (Advertise)
3. I looked everywhere but I couldn’t find him. He’s …… (Appear)
4. It’s very…… to drink and drive. (Danger)
5. Can you give me some more …… about this adventure holiday? (Inform)
6. We need to put up some …… for tonight’s party. (Decorate)
7. The weather today will be cold and…… . (Wind)
8. Margarita was very …… with the service. (Satisfy)
They put a lot of …… on him to agree to their demands. (Press)
I’ve had three…… nights and l feel exhausted. (Sleep)
If you have problems with your ……, see a doctor. (Circulate)
I’m feeling very …… today. I think I’ll go for a run. (Energy)
Remember that …… are also human. (Examine)
His nose was quite …… for days after he’d it pierced. ( Pain)
There are a lot of …… restaurants in this area. (Fashion)
Although she isn’t beautiful, most men find her quite…… (Attract).
1.The food was completely …… ; he was a useless cook .(Taste)
2. There were over 500 ……to the temple every day .(Visit )
3. You can’t hope to win the race without any …… .(Train)
4. In spite of her ……,Jane continued her journey .(Hungry )
5.Hard as he tried , he was unable to find …… .(Solve )
6.I …… speaking , I don’t think Latin is a useful subject .(Person)
7.You need to organize your time more …… (Efficient )
Stories are more ……. than lists of words .(Memory )
His exam results were very …… . (Please )
Passing exams will help you to get a ……job .(Good )
You should revise on a regular …… (Base )
There are books that are specially …….for foreign learners.(Simple )
A degree is a very useful…….to have .(Qualify )
I hope you will take into …… what I have just said to you .(Consider )
This new book had many beautiful ……in it .(ILLUSTRATE)
1.My aunt became …….when she went to America.
2.Paul sings …….; I’m surprised he isn’t a professional singer. (Beauty)
3.I was …….to see all my old friends again. (Delight )
4.They bought some …… for their new house. (Furnish )
5. She lives in a really ……mansion in the suburbs. (Luxury )
6. Are you sitting ……. in that chair ? (Comfort )
7.Everyone was nervous about the ……’s visit. (Inspector)
8.Our teacher has a really strong ……. . (Person)
9.His father has the best …… of ancient coins. (Collect)
1.The teacher wanted to know what my greatest …….(Ambitious)
2.I……ever go to the theatre. I don’t like it .(Hard )
3.Marina has a very …… manner , which I appreciate .(Relax)
4.Her son took part in the world ……last year .(Champion)
5.I was …….when victor said I was beautiful.(Flatter)
6. Julia got a ……for best leading actress .(Nominate )
7.She’s a very ……thinker .(Origin)
8.Her friend is very …….! You can trust him .(Rely)
Ответы к тренировочным тестам.
1. Expensive 2. Patient 3.Ambitious
4.Enthusiasm 5. Confidence 6.Impolite
4 . Hunger