Текст слайда: The largest flowers in the world Pupils from 9b: Yakovlev Artyom, Ivanov Alexander Teacher: Yakimova A.N. Alikovo secondary school Alikovo - 2010
Текст слайда: Plan: 1.The giant water lily Victoria amazonica 2.What is the larges Cactus in the world? 3.Corpse flower(Rafflesia arnoldii- the larhest flower) 4.Titan arum 5.Refrence
Текст слайда: Victoria amazonica There are a lot of flowers in the world but there are very few giant flowers. And I will speak about them. One of them is the water lily
Текст слайда: Victoria (waterlily) Victoria Scientific lassification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Magnoliopsida Order: Nymphaeales Family: Nymphaeaceae Genus: Victoria Lindley Species Victoria amazonica (Poepp.) Sowerby Victoria cruziana A. D. Orb
Текст слайда: Victoria is a genus of water lilies, in the plant family Nymphaeaceae, with very large leaves that float on the water's surface. Victoria amazonica has a leaf that is up to 3 m (9.8 ft) in diameter, on a stalk 7–8 m (22.9-26.2 ft) in length. The genus name was given in honour of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom Victoria amazonica is native to the shallow waters of the Amazon River basin, such as oxbow lakes and bayous. It is depicted in the Guyanese coat of arms. The flowers are white the first night they are open and become pink the second night. They are up to 40 cm in diameter, and are pollinated by scarab beetles. Another species, Victoria cruziana, in the Parana-Paraguay basin, is only slightly smaller, with the underside of the leaves purple rather than the red of V. amazonica, and covered with a peachlike fuzz lacking in V. amazonica. V. cruziana opens its flowers at dusk. The first published description of the genus was by John Lindley in 1837, based on specimens returned from British Guiana by Robert Schomburgk. Lindley named the genus after the new Queen, Victoria, and the species Victoria regia. An earlier account of the species, Euryale amazonica Poeppig, in 1832 described an affinity with Euryale ferox. A collection and description was also made by the French botanist Aimé Bonpland in 1825.
Текст слайда: The leaf of Victoria is able to support quite a large weight due to the plant's structure, although the leaf itself is quite delicate: so much so that "a straw held 6 inches above and dropped perpendicularly upon it would readily pass through it". To counter the fragile nature of the leaf, the weight needs to be distributed across the surface through mechanical means, such as a sheet of plywood. This allows the leaf to support up to 70 pounds
Текст слайда: This aquatic plant grows as large as 6 feet in diameter. The leaves are ornamental. The white flowers are the size of a soccer balls. They are always white and bloom at night. After a Lily is pollinated, it changes colours until it finally turns red. It then changes into a fruit that serves as food for the fish.
Текст слайда: The most interesting thing about this flower is the large leaves that it creates. The leaves can grow up to 46 centimeters in size and can hold up to 136 kilograms, the leaves are flat before growing rims at the edge of the leaf. The leaves are strong and stiff thanks to the strong bottom of the leaves. The bottoms are covered with spines to help support the ribs. The bottom of the leaf is maroon in colour. The Giant Water Lily does not grow year round in areas where it is not a native species, such as Great Britain; it only grows and reproduces in the summertime when the climate is warm. However, in its native Brazil and in the Amazon it grows all year long, due to the optimum conditions. Several huge Victoria regia leaves in the Amazon rain forest
Текст слайда: The leaves of Victoria amazonica are so strong that they can support the weight of a human.
Текст слайда: A woman standing on a leaf of Victoria cruziana in the lily pond in front of the Linnaean House of the Missouri Botanical Garden. A wooden plank and a towel is placed on the pad to prevent damage to the plant.
Текст слайда: The Giant Water Lily grows in the shallow waters of the Amazon River basin, as well as bayous and specific lakes in Brazil. This species is native to Brazil. Another species, Victoria cruziana, in the Parana-Paraguay basin, is only slightly smaller, with the underside of the leaves purple rather than the red of V. amazonica, and covered with a peachlike fuzz lacking in V. amazonica. V. cruziana opens its flowers at dusk.
Текст слайда: The leaves of Victoria cruziana Flower of Victoria cruziana
Текст слайда: The underside of the giant water lily is covered with sharp, inch-long spines which protect the pad from herbivorous fishes. The spines are apparently toxic, because being pricked by one is said to be extremely painful. Underwater parts (root and stem) and seed of the plant are edible. The pattern of ribs helps support the huge leaf.
Текст слайда: What Is the Largest Cactus in the World? The largest cactus in the world is tcactus, scientific name Carnegiea gigantea, a species of the genus Carnegiea. It is indigenous to the Mexican plain as well as the Sonoran Desert in Arizona and a few other areas in the southern United States Facts about the Saguaro Cactus The Saguaro cactus’ roots grow as long as 30 meters underground. Stems reach up to 20 meters and spines are 2 meters long. One variant, the Champion Saguaro, can be as tall as 45.3 feet or 13.8 meters. The Saguaro can live for as long as 150-200 years, but It takes its time growing. For example, it can take up to a century for the cactus to grow to 8 meters tall. One branch or arm can take 75 years to reach full length. Spines, though can grow up to a millimeter in a day. Although a cactus can survive with little water, the Saguaro grows faster when it receives more water. The cactus’ flowers bloom at nighttime from April to May. Its edible fruit comes into season in June. Sanguaro seeds need pollinators such as fruit bats.Like other cactus plants, the Saguaro is designed to store as much water as possible when it comes. A single plant can hold water nine times its own weight
Текст слайда: The Saguaro Cactus and Its Ecosystem This cactus is extremely useful to humans and animals living in the desert. Several species of birds including woodpeckers, owls, house finches and purple martins make their homes in the Sanguaro’s thick stem. Native Americans used the cactus’ ribs in building their homes. Today the Sanguaro is a highly protected species. Arizona state law forbids damaging or taking down this cactus. Even road and house constructions need special permission from the local government if there is need to cut down a plant. The Saguaro in Film and Advertising The Saguaro cactus with its broad, fork-like stems has become one of the most recognizable features of the American desert. It is recognized by a straight central branch flanked by several shorter arms. If there is one cactus everyone is familiar with, it is the Saguaro. But the Saguaro is not as widespread as its over-exposure in the media would have people believe. The largest cactus in the world can be found only in very specific areas in the United States. Sanguaros are not native to Utah, New Mexico, Texas, Colorado and Nevada, and very few are found in California. It is not even seen in northern Arizona. The saguaro flowers every year in May and June.
Текст слайда: The saguaro flower is about a 3 inch wide cluster of creamy white petals around a dense group of yellow stamens on about a 4 inch long stem. The saguaro has more stamens per flower than any other cactus flower. Over a period of about a month a few of the flowers open each night. They secrete a very sweet nectar into the flower tubes. By about noon the following day the flower closes forever.
Текст слайда: The outside skin of the saguaro is smooth. Inside the full grown saguaro there are 2 inch spines that absorb water. The saguaro then expands like an accordion. It can hold about a ton of water in those spines.
Текст слайда: The root system of a saguaro is very shallow. There is a tap root that is only about 3 feet long, and the rest of the roots are only about a foot long. You may wonder how these roots support such great weight. The roots anchor the saguaro by wrapping themselves around rocks.
Текст слайда: A saguaro can only be fertilized by pollen from another cactus. The pollen attracts birds, bats and insects which go from saguaro to saguaro to enjoy the sweet nectar. If fertilization has taken place, a fruit will begin to form at the base of the flower. The ripe fruit is about 3 inches wide and eventually splits open. A single fruit can have thousands of seeds. All sorts of desert creatures feed on the fruit of the saguaro, and if any seeds survive, a new saguaro may be created.
Текст слайда: Gila Woodpeckers and Gilded Flickers are common inhabitants of saguaros. Owls, martins, and finches may also visit from time to time. Hawks will sometimes nest in the saguaro from which they can easily see their prey below
Текст слайда: The saguaro is threatened by several factors. Lightning and root rot during the rainy season can be deadly to a saguaro. Humans use them for target practice and urban sprawl continues to move them, and their pollinators, from their native habitat. Still, there is no evidence to suggest that saguaros are declining in number.
Текст слайда: Corpse flower (Rafflesia arnoldii) - the largest flower Interesting facts about corpse flower (Rafflesia arnoldii) - the largest flower in the plant kingdom (diameter from 60 cm to 1 m with a weight of up to 11 kg).
Текст слайда: Rafflesia From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Rafflesia is a genus of parasitic flowering plants. It was discovered in the Indonesian rain forest by an Indonesian guide working for Dr. Joseph Arnold in 1818, and named after Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, the leader of the expedition. It contains approximately 27 species (including four incompletely characterized species as recognized by Meijer 1997), all found in southeastern Asia, on the Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and the Philippines.
Текст слайда: The plant has no stems, leaves or true roots. It is an endoparasite of vines in the genus Tetrastigma (Vitaceae), spreading its root-like haustoria inside the tissue of the vine. The only part of the plant that can be seen outside the host vine is the five-petaled flower. In some species, such as Rafflesia arnoldii, the flower may be over 100 centimetres (39 in) in diameter, and weigh up to 10 kilograms (22 lb). Even the smallest species, R. manillana, has 20 cm diameter flowers. The flowers look and smell like rotting flesh, hence its local names which translate to "corpse flower" or "meat flower" (but see below). The vile smell that the flower gives off attracts insects such as flies and carrion beetles, which transport pollen from male to female flowers. Little is known about seed dispersal. However, tree shrews and other forest mammals apparently eat the fruits and disperse the seeds. Rafflesia is an official state flower of Indonesia, also Sabah state in Malaysia, as well as for the Surat Thani Province, Thailand. The name "corpse flower" applied to Rafflesia is confusing because this common name also refers to the Titan Arum (Amorphophallus titanum) of the family Araceae. Moreover, because Amorphophallus has the world's largest unbranched inflorescence, it is sometimes mistakenly credited as having the world's largest flower. Both Rafflesia and Amorphophallus are flowering plants, but they are still distantly related. Rafflesia arnoldii has the largest single flower of any flowering plant, at least when one judges this by weight. Amorphophallus titanum has the largest unbranched inflorescence, while the Talipot palm (Corypha umbraculifera) forms the largest branched inflorescence, containing thousands of flowers; this plant is monocarpic, meaning that individuals die after flowering.
Текст слайда: The largest flowers in the world belong to Rafflesia genus, found in southeastern Asia (Malaya, Borneo, Sumatra, Philippines). The biggest of all is that of R. arnoldii, from Borneo and Sumatra: 11 kg, 1 m (3 feet) wide. The flower is blood-red and spreads a rotten-flesh stink, which attracts carrion flies for pollination. But since the discovery of these plants - less than two centuries ago - they posed an enigma. Rafflesia are parasitic plants with an unusual trait. As they live on the jungle floor, extracting food from the roots of a tropical vine (Tetrastigma), they lost all organs: stem, roots, leaves. As they do not make photosynthesis, Rafflesia do not need those organs. So, scientists found it very difficult to classify these species, creating a whole family only for them, Rafflesiaceae, and an order, Rafflesiales. "These plants are so strange - almost extra-terrestrial - wherever they were placed [within the family tree] there would be a lot of explaining to do", said Charles Davis, assistant professor of organismic and evolutionary biology at Harvard University. But in the DNA analysis era, this obstacle could be surpassed, and to their surprise, the bizarre plants were proven to belong to the Euphorbiaceae family. The big surprise was that all plants in these family bear tiny blooms. The most economically important species in this family are the rubber tree, castor oil plant and the cassava shrub, but in the temperate zone the most known spontaneous species are the spurges. "The big shocker, of course, is that they fall in the middle of this group with minute flowers", added Davis. DNA analysis showed that 46 million years ago, the plants' blooms began to evolve at an accelerated pace, increasing from a tiny 2mm (0.08in) up to their enormous size. "These plants occur exclusively in tropical rainforest under-storeys, which are very dimly lit, and they are restricted to the forest floor. They don't have an easy way of presenting their flowers to various insects for pollination", said Davis. "By maximising their surface area it is much easier to waft the funky smell further distances, which lures carrion flies." "Their size means they also become a very effective stop sign and visual cue to lure these flies in so that they pollinate the plant."
Текст слайда: The Rafflesia arnoldii is the world's largest flower. Photograph by Harry Wiriadinata and Suwito Alam from article in Voice of Nature, v. 84, August 1990, p. 14. File:Rafflesia arnoldii and buds.JPG
Текст слайда: First Rafflesia was found on the island of Sumatra. Officer Stamford Raffles and the botanist Joseph Arnold made the first scientific description of the plants and measured it. He was awarded the sonorous name - Rafflesia Arnoldi. But local residents have long known of its existence and called no less grandly - Bunga patma which means lotus flower.
Текст слайда: Another enormous flower found in Indonesia is the Amorphophallus titanum, or Titan arum. It is also known as the "corpse flower" for its unpleasant odor. Like the Rafflesia, the Titan emits the smell of rotting flesh to attract pollinators. Technically, the Titan arum is not a single flower. It is a cluster of many tiny flowers, called an inflorescence. The Titan arum has the largest unbranched inflorescence of all flowering plants. The plant can reach heights of 7 to 12 feet and weigh as much as 170 pounds
Текст слайда: This flower in Mexico only blooms once every 40 years for 4 days. How magnificent is God's creation!
Текст слайда: The largest flower in the world is blossoming in the mountainous region of Rio Blanco, Veracruz, Mexico . Two meters high, it has the peculiarity of blooming only during four days every 40 years.
Текст слайда: This email forward claims that an attached photograph depicts a flower growing in mountains near Rio Blanco, Veracruz, Mexico that is the largest in the world and only blooms once every forty years for four days. However, while the image itself is genuine, the email is inaccurate in its description of the flower. The flower shown in the image - Amorphophallus titanum or Titan Arum - is indeed considered the largest in the world. Also known as the "Corpse Flower" because of its foul smell, Amorphophallus titanum is a prized addition to a number of well-known botanical gardens around the world, including London's Kew Gardens, California's Huntington Botanical Gardens and Sydney's Royal Botanic Gardens. The plants have become quite famous and always attract large crowds when a particular specimen blooms at one of the above locations or at a number of others gardens around the world. One such plant was also featured in Sir David Attenborough's outstanding BBC documentary The Private Life Of Plants. However, while specimens of the Corpse Flower may exist in gardens in Mexico, the plant certainly does not grow wild in that country as implied in the email. In fact, the native habitat of Amorphophallus titanum is the rainforests of Sumatra, Indonesia. Moreover, the photograph of the Titan Arum included in the message was not taken in Mexico. The photograph was actually taken at Stuttgart, Germany's Wilhelma Botanical and Zoological Gardens by Lothar Grünz in October 2005. The same photograph along with details about where, when and by whom the picture was taken, is available on the Wikimedia Commons website. And, another shot published on the Wilhelma website clearly shows the same building in the background as that shown in the above photograph.
Текст слайда: While bloomings of the Amorphophallus titanum are certainly rare, and the flowers only last for two or three days, it is not true that they only bloom once every forty years as claimed in the message. The specimens kept in various botanical gardens often go for several years between blooms. However, the plants are not set to a forty year blooming cycle and many specimens have bloomed much more regularly. In "The Private Life Of Plants", David Attenborough suggests that Amorphophallus titanum in the wild bloom about once every 1000 days. Thus, it seems clear that an unknown prankster has simply taken the picture of the Wilhelma Titan Arum and tacked on some fanciful information about Mexico and a fictitious forty year bloom cycle
Текст слайда: References Где растет самый большой в мире цветок?-http://www.vokrugsveta.ru/quiz/419/ Самые большие цветы на планете – http://greenword.ru/2008/09/biggest-flowers.html Выяснено происхождение самого большого цветка http://elementy.ru/news/430491 Трупная лилия (Rafflesia arnoldii) - самый большой цветок - интересные факты http://www.flowerstoday.ru/articles/article01.html World’s largest flower http://www.loc.gov/rr/scitech/mysteries/flower.html The Largest Flower in the World http://www.chevroncars.com/learn/wondrous-world/largest-flower-world Largest Flower Evolved From Family Of Much Tinier Blooms http://www.terradaily.com/reports/Largest_Flower_Evolved_From_Family_Of_Much_Tinier_Blooms_999.html Mature Rafflesia arnoldii flower with buds http://www.the-andaman-eye.net/Khaosok/Rafflesia.php http://www.kew.org/plants/titan/timelapse.html http://www.kew.org/plants/titan/ They belong to a family of tiny flowers! http://news.softpedia.com/news/DNA-Analysis-Has-Showed-The-Biggest-Flowers-on-Earth-to-be-Related-With-Rubber-Tree-44250.shtml http://in.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20090119105529AAjeP2l Rafflesia